# Loss functions for semantic segmentation

### Introduction

Categorical cross entropy *CCE* and Dice index *DICE* are popular loss functions for training of neural networks for semantic segmentation.
In medical field images being analyzed consist mainly of background pixels with a few pixels belonging to objects of interest.
Such cases of high class imbalance cause networks to be biased towards background when trained with *CCE*.
To account for that, weighting of foreground and background pixels can be applied.
In contrast to *CCE*, usage of *DICE* doesn’t require weighting to successfully train models with imbalanced datasets^{1}.

### Loss functions

**Notation:** In the following, and denote th channel at the th pixel location of the reference labels and neural network softmax output, respectively.
is a one-hot vector of length with at the reference class location and elsewhere.
I use to denote the total channel count, to denote total pixel count in a mini-batch and as a small constant plugged to avoid numerical problems.
The code examples below use `tensorflow`

and assume that models are fed with 4-D tensors of shape `(batch_dim, y_dim, x_dim, channel_dim)`

.

**Softmax output:** The loss functions are computed on the softmax output which interprets the model output as unnormalized log probabilities and squashes them into range such that for a given pixel location .

#### Categorical Cross Entropy

Categorical cross entropy sums negative logs of output probabilities for the correct class. Formally, it is defined as:

```
def cce_loss(softmax_output, labels):
eps = 1e-7
log_p = -tf.log(tf.clip_by_value(softmax_output, eps, 1-eps))
loss = tf.reduce_sum(labels * log_p, axis=-1)
return tf.reduce_mean(loss)
```

#### Dice

The Dice loss function *DICE* can be defined as:

or using squares in the denominator (*DICE_SQUARE*) as proposed by Milletari^{1}:

is used to avoid division by 0 (denominator) and to learn from patches containing no pixels of th class in the reference (nominator). The multiplication by gives a nice property, that the loss is within regardless of the channel count. Optionally, the dice loss can be computed only for foreground channels (*DICEFG*, *DICEFG_SQUARE*), because it punishes false positives.

```
def dice_loss(softmax_output, labels, ignore_background=False, square=False):
if ignore_background:
labels = labels[..., 1:]
softmax_output = softmax_output[..., 1:]
axis = (0,1,2)
eps = 1e-7
nom = (2 * tf.reduce_sum(labels * softmax_output, axis=axis) + eps)
if square:
labels = tf.square(labels)
softmax_output = tf.square(softmax_output)
denom = tf.reduce_sum(labels, axis=axis) + tf.reduce_sum(softmax_output, axis=axis) + eps
return 1 - tf.reduce_mean(nom / denom)
```

### Experiments

I prepared a toy segmentation task with one foreground class. I used `np.random.rand`

to generate input images.
A pixel is foreground if its value is bigger than some threshold . By tinkering with we can set the balance between output classes:

- = 0.95: 95% bg, 5% fg
- = 0.5: 50% bg, 50% fg

To investigate the behavior of different loss functions I trained a model with one of them for various bg/fg ratios and saved loss values and global gradient norms of all of them.
I also trained models with and without batch normalization (*BN*) before each nonlinearity and used *ADAM* and *SGD* optimizers.

You can find my code used for the experiments here^{2}. Feel free to take a look at it and I encourage you to run further experiments using the ipython notebook.
Some results are plotted below (column name denotes the loss function used for training). All plots can be found here^{3}.

#### Results

##### Please zoom in for better readability.

#### Observations

None of the models converged when optimized with *SGD*, whether *BN* was used or not.
Optimizing with *ADAM* made all models without *BN* converge except for the one trained with *DICEFG* on the 95% fg data.
Using *BN* before each activation improved models accuracy and helped to train the model with *DICEFG* on the 95% fg data successfully.
When training with *DICEFG*, the *CCE* loss and gradient norm skyrocketed in the beginning for the 50% fg dataset.

It is interesting to note, that the gradient norms for the 95% fg case are smaller than those for the 5% fg case. It is a strange observation, because, for example from the point of view of the *DICE* and *CCE* loss functions, both situations should be indistinguishable, since they take bg and fg equally into account.

#### Conclusions

For this toy segmentation task, all models with batch normalization achieved a good accuracy on all bg/fg configurations regardless of the used loss function.
Batch normalization improved models performance and was essential to make the model trained with *DICEFG* converge on the 95% fg dataset.